A proctoscope is a special metallic or plastic medical instrument. The doctor uses it to check the inside of the regions around the rectum and the anus as part of the clinical examination. The rectum and anus belong to the bottom-most part of the large intestines. Most often this instrument is used when patients complain of discomfort in the rectal or anal regions, such as bleeding or discomfort, after bowel motion. These conditions are most commonly due to the presence of haemorrhoids. Patients may feel some fullness or slight discomfort when the instrument is placed, like the feeling of passing a hard stool. The proctoscopy procedure is a quick examination; thus patients can usually tolerate it well without the need for sedation.